Sector model- a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges radiating out from the central business district (CBD) and centered on major transportation lines.

• Also known as the Hoyt Model. Developed in 1939 by land economist Homer Hoyt.
• He said that a city develops in a series of sectors, not rings.
• Different areas attract different activities by chance or by environmental factors.
• As the city grows, activities within it grow outward in a wedge shape from the CBD.

CBD- central business district, the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered. It is also called the central activities district. In North America, it is called “downtown.” In Chicago, it would be the area closest to the lake, most notably Michigan Avenue.


Industry

• Industry follows rivers, canals, railroads, or roads
• Lower class workers work here. Paid little, bad working conditions.
• Produces goods or other domestic products for city

Low Class Residential
• Low income housing
• Near railroads that feed factories or
• Inhabitants tend to work in factories
• Live near industry to reduce transportation costs
• Pollution or poor environmental conditions due to industry (traffic, noise and pollution make it cheap)

Middle Class Residential
• More desirable area because it is further from industry and pollution
• Access to transportation lines for working people who work in the CBD, making transport easier
• Largest residential area

High Class Residential
• Housing on outermost edge
• Furthest away from industry
• Quiet, clean, less traffic
• Corridor or spine extending from CBD to edge has best housing.

Where it does and doesn’t apply (some weaknesses)
• Applies well to Chicago
• Low cost housing is near industry and transportation proving Hoyt’s model
• Theory based on 20th century and does not take into account cars which make commerce easier
• With cars, people can live anywhere and further from the city and still travel to the CBD using their car. Not only do high-class residents have cars, but also middle and lower class people may have cars.

BACKGROUND INFO
-theory of urban structure
-also known as Hoyt Model
-developed in 1939 by Homer Hoyt
-states that a city develops in sectors, not rings
-certain areas are more attractive for different activities because of an environmental factor or by mere chance.
-Hoyt modified the concentric zone model to account for major transportation routes
-according to this model most major cities evolved around the nexus of several important transport facilities such as railroads, sea ports, and trolly lines that eminated from the city's center.
-Hoyt theorized that cities would tend to grow in wedge-shaped patterns, or sectors, eminating from the CBD and centered on major transportation routes.
-It is a monocentric representation of urban areas
-He posited a CBD around which other land uses cluster
-But important factor is not distance from CBD as in the concentric zone model, but direction away from CBD
-As growth occurs, similar activities
stay in the same area and extend outwards
-The Hoyt model realized that transportation (in particular) and access to resources caused a disruption of the Burgess model.
-For example a rail line or major highway to a nearby city may result in business development to preferentially develop parallel to the rail line or major highway. So one side of a city may be completely industrial with another sector may be completely rural.

DEFINITION
-a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, radiating from the CBD (central business district)

CBD
-the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered
-commercial and geographic heart of the city
-ex: downtown in North America

LOW-CLASS RESIDENTIAL
-tend to be near railroad lines, and commercial establishments along the business areas
-have various transportation sources into an urban area or CBD. Some are railroads, tram lines, and seaports.
-close to industry to save commuting costs
-Lower-class people tend to work in factories more than businesses with offices
-borders manufacturing/industrial sectors (traffic, noise, and pollution makes these areas the least desirable)
-Aka- low income households

MIDDLE-CLASS RESIDENTIAL
-further away from manufacturing and industrial sectors making it more desirable than low-class residential
-connected with CBD for working middle class people to easily get to work
-the largest population in the city because the average working person can afford the housing

HIGH- CLASS RESIDENTIAL
-most expensive housing is built on the outer edge, further out from the center
-the best housing is found in a corridor extending from the downtown CBD to the outer edge of the city
-furthest away from manufacturing/ industrial sectors making the environment around high-class residential to be quiet, have less traffic, and cleaner air.

INDUSTRY
-factories tend to go along rivers, canals, rail lines, or roads
-provide the needs for the people in the city
-consists of many lower class workers so that they can pay for many of them with the smallest amount possible

EXAMPLE-Chicago
-the upper class residential sector evolved outward along the desirable Lake Michigan shoreline north of the central business district, while industry extended southward in sectors that followed railroad lines.(Wikipedia)
-Hoyt argued that the best housing in Chicago developed north from the CBD along Lake Michigan, whereas industry located along major rail lines and roads to the south, southwest, and northwest. (book)