Breakup of Yugoslavia
The term Breakup of Yugoslavia refers to a series of conflicts and political upheavals resulting in the dissolution of the Yugoslavia

The country was a conglomeration of six regional republics and two autonomous provinces that was roughly divided on ethnic lines and split up in the 1990s into several independent countries. These eight federal units were the six republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.

Note that the country, even when one country, divided people into provinces based on their background. Many of the provinces used a slightly differing language as well.

The country broke apart largely along those lines.

Many ethnic groups felt more loyalty to their ethnic group / nation than to their state. This major devolutionary pull eventually broke the country apart in a series of wars.


The Major Groups and their Religious Backgrounds
Croatians - Roman Catholics
Serbians - Eastern Orthodox
Bosnians - Muslims
Slovenes - Catholic (predominantly)

The country broke apart primarily along religious lines (although a little was also ethnic) and is the best example of a shatterbelt / Balkinization.

Balkinization tends to imply the breakup of the country was violent.

Other Examples:
-Russia / USSR
-India and Pakistan were once a part of the same colony of England but then separated along religious lines

Other Examples of countries facing devlolutionary forces but that have not broken apart so not a shatterbelt:
-United Kingdom
-Nigeria went through a civil war based of ethnic and religious lines but stayed intact.

Ethnic Cleansing
Ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon in the war. This typically entailed intimidation, forced expulsion and/or killing of the undesired ethnic group as well as the destruction or removal of the physical vestiges of the ethnic group, such as places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings. Often includes the frequent use of torture

Both Bosnia and Kosovo were conflicts that involved ethnic cleansing from the Serbs against the Bosnians and the Albanians of Kosovo

Other Examples:
Ethnic cleansing also occurred in Rwanda (remember our powerpoint) and has occurred in other countries in Africa as a result of tribalism. You can also see the article on Sudan in this wiki.