North American urban areas follow what Chauncey Harris (creator of the multiple nuclei model) calls the peripheral model. According to the peripheral model, an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
-From 1960s to the 1990s

More recent idea and car dependent
So the area surrounding the city would be built at auto scale
-and have parking lots around stores, office areas, etc.
-areas would spread out and single use zones would separate each other.

Goes with the development of sprawl
So all of the traits of sprawl go with the outside of cities with this model (some examples of sprawl below - we do have a full article on it)
-single-use zones
-low density development of buildings (single story buildings more prevalent on the fringe)
-edge cities would exist on the outside which are a more built up suburb
-highways are used for travel and make the development of the periphery possible

Decentralization of the CBD
-Shopping and businesses start to go out to the suburbs (edge cities)
-Also indicates a movement of jobs to the periphery
-City loses some of its middle class and has a prevalence of lower class giving it issues
-Population grows on the outside of the city / Suburbs now a larger percentage of the population that people living in the cities.
-Highway going around the city shows that interaction from one part of the periphery to another part of the periphery has gained in importance over interactions from the outside to the inside of the city.
-Suburbs continue to grow and now have differing areas of activities and differ in lifestyle to a certain degree

Created by Chauncy Harris who made the Multiple Nuclei model with Ullman so it goes with the ideas in that model and simply adds on the idea of a ring highway and the idea that the suburbs surround the city (development of the periphery)

Also uses the idea of Edge cities surrounding the central city