Grain Farms

DEFINITION:
Grains are seeds from the various grasses

Note that according to Guns Germs and Steel, Eurasia had most of the tall grasses that turned out to be food.


These crops are grown more for human than animal consumption when they are commercial. Mixed farms with livestock would grow it for the animals that are there on the farm. In LDCs,these crops are for local consumption (they also eat less meat there).

Commercial grain farms sell their output to manufacturer of food products such as cereal producers and snack foods and other foods.

Most important of these is wheat. US and Canada account for half of the world's wheat production. US is the largest commercial producer. Prairie areas are in the heartland and the midwest.

Wheats and Regions:
-Winter wheat: planted in the autumn, it survives winter and is harvest in the spring (Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma)
-Spring wheat: planted in the spring and harvested in the summer (Dakotas, Montana)
-Parts of Washington State do large-scale commercial grain farming

Large scale uses reapers and combines that is machinery allows this to happen on a large scale. (capital intensive)

Also it occurs in the most rural states where land is the cheapest.



Mediterranean Farming
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DEFINITION:
The Mediterranean climatic region which experiences winter rain and summer d~ought has given rise to a distinctive type of agriculture. This type of farming is also found in irrigated semi-desert and desert areas in similar latitudes. Farming is intensive and highly specialized. A variety of crops are raised.

CROPS:
Citrus fruits, olives and figs, with long, widespread roots, scant foliage and thick skinned fruits are best adapted to the Mediterranean type of climate. Dates are prominent in semi-arid region in North Africa and in scattered areas in south-west Europe, where cultivation of other crops is not viable. Use olive oil instead of animal fat in areas where the food is more local (nt much animal cultivation in this region)

GRAPES:
grape cultivation is typical of the Mediterranean regions. It calls for a highly intensive form of farming. Not only good conditions of moisture, temperature and soil are required, but much personal care is also called for, if the grapes are to be of high quality. Grapes grown in different parts of the Mediterranean lands have distinctive flavors, and the wines made in the various areas have their exclusive names, e.g., sherry from the Andalusia district in southern Spain, port wine from the Douro Basin in western Portugal, Marsala from Sicily, Chianti from the Chianti Hills of Tuscany, Asti from the Piedmont district of northern Italy. In France, wine-making is a national industry even though much of the country does not. enjoy a Mediterranean climate. Here there is even more distinct specialization: the sparkling Champagne comes from the Paris basin; Burgundy from the limestone scarplands of the Cote d’Or; Claret, Brandy (Cognac), Barsac and Bordeaux from different parts of western France, especially the basin of Aquitaine. Raisins or currants are inferior grapes which have been dried. Greece, Turkey and California are the major exporters of raisins. Incidentally, California accounts for four-fifths of all the grapes grown in the United States. It supplies mainly table grapes and raisins.

REGIONS:
California (more commercial), Mediterranean, South Africa, Chile, Parts of Australia. California and the Mediterranean are the best examples.


Summary from text material
Given the name because the area reflects the type of climate needed for this farming.
-borders the sea
-sea winds provide moderate moisture for rain
-summers are hot and dry

Small amount of income comes from animals. Mostly they grow crops for human consumption. They do practice horticulture and grow fruits and vegetables and flowers and trees (olives, grapes, fruits and vegetables). The local characteristics determine what is grown. About half of the food grown would be cereals.

California is a Mediterranean climate and they provide grapes, wine, fruits and nuts to the US.